InicioLA REGIÓNDestacadossHallan fórmula para salvar la piedra tallada más grande del mundo

Hallan fórmula para salvar la piedra tallada más grande del mundo

El Fuerte de Samaipata, declarado Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por su riqueza arqueológica, se deteriora con rapidez, a consecuencia de la humedad, los líquenes y microplantas. Expertos españoles aplicarán tres químicos para proteger el antiguo sitio ceremonial y así preservar la joya turística de Santa Cruz.


Texto y fotos: Doly Leytón Arnez

Están prendidos a la roca, parecen pequeñas flores blanquecinas y grisáceas, que forman lunares, como si de un estampado se tratara. De no ser por el daño que causan, hasta podrían parecer un ornamento.  Son líquenes, pequeños organismos vegetales que están prendidos a la piedra tallada más grande del mundo –El Fuerte de Samaipata– y la consumen a una velocidad alarmante, incluso poniendo en riesgo la declaratoria de Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad.

Ante la situación, autoridades del municipio y técnicos del Centros de Investigaciones Arqueológicas (CIAS) apelaron la empresa Édolo, especializada en conservar monumentos de esta envergadura. Así, dos de sus especialistas –Virtudes Jimenes y Luis Miguel Muñoz- llegaron a mediados de enero al país, para realizar pruebas y determinar qué tipo de químicos ayudarán a conservar el monumento. Hasta ahora han determinado que tres sustancias son las más apropiadas: un hidrofugante para protegerlo de la humedad; un consolidante, que detiene la erosión y desgaste, y un biocida para tratar los líquenes y hongos. Los dos primeros serán traídos de Italia y el tercero es producido en Bolivia por la empresa Wet Chemical.

Virtudes Jimenes muestra el resultado de las pruebas realizadas en parte de El Fuerte.

Rolando Galarza Meneses, director del CIAS, explicó a La Región que, al menos, diez importantes relieves ya han desaparecido, entre ellos, la imagen del jaguar y parte de la serpiente.

Esto porque, además de los líquenes se ha encontrado pequeñas plantas cuyas raíces deterioran la roca, insectos y desprendimientos de piezas grandes. “La afectación es total, en toda la piedra no hay un espacio donde no se encuentre daño”, dice Jimenes.

Anualmente este sitio recibe unos 70 mil turistas y genera más de un millón y medio de bolivianos por lo que urge tomar medidas para detener el problema.

Lee también: Samaipata, el despertar del gigante

No es el primer intento por salvar la roca

Los profesionales involucrados en el proyecto, junto a las autoridades municipales dieron las buenas noticias.

Omar Claure, arqueólogo y uno de los gestores de la declaratoria de Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad, ve con optimismo el proyecto de conservación. Cuenta que, al menos, seis delegaciones de expertos propusieron alternativas, pero todo quedó en informes.  “Estoy muy satisfecho, porque esta ha sido la propuesta más interesante y la explicación más coherente que he podido ver. Los otros técnicos solo hacían reportes escritos pero cuando se analizaban, nunca tenían respuesta”, asegura. Empero, ahora es vital conseguir fondos para ejecutar el proyecto.

Tanto él como los expertos españoles coinciden en que si no se ejecutan acciones de conservación a corto plazo, se perderán los valiosos tallados que atraen a miles de visitantes, generando un decaimiento de la actividad turística que es el medio de vida de cientos de familias en Samaipata, municipio que acoge al coloso de piedra.

Luis Callisaya, arqueólogo gestor de la iniciativa, explicó que los especialistas ya han trabajado en seis sitios declarados Patrimonio de la Humanidad y que tienen 25 años de experiencia, por lo que los productos que traerán de Italia se han probado en grandes sitios arqueológicos como el coliseo romano, griego, castillos y varios palacios. “La información de esa tecnología, conocimiento y experiencia que aplicarán en el proyecto de conservación la van a entregar en dos meses. Entonces vamos a saber con exactitud el precio y tiempo en el que se va a conservar la roca”.

Por su parte, Muñoz detalló que su empresa intervino exitosamente en la restauración de los siguientes sitios ubicados en España: la Medina Azahara, en Córdoba; la Torre de la Botica en El Escorial; el Palacio de Fuensalida, y la fachada del Archivo Histórico de Salamanca, entre otros.

Los expertos mostraron una prueba con el hidrofugante.

En tanto, el alcalde samaipateño, Favio López, detalló que la Fundación Ambassador Fund financió este primer paso hacia la conservación de la piedra tallada, gracias a gestiones realizadas por su municipio, a través de expertos del CIAS, y la Fundación García Capriles. El financiamiento logrado es de 70 mil dólares, destinados, además, a la implementación de un inédito laboratorio de geoquímica y la construcción de un techo para el CIAS.

Los expertos demostraron los resultados de los productos utilizados en 6 puntos de la roca.

Lee también: Hospedajes en Samaipata

Los líquenes, los primeros en la rocas

Los líquenes se apoderan de la roca tallada más grande del mundo.

Por Huascar Bustillos*

Los líquenes son organismos dobles, ya que están constituidos por algas y hongos en una perfecta simbiosis que reporta beneficios para ambos participantes. El hongo recibe azúcares del alga que realiza la fotosíntesis con su clorofila; estas sustancias son absorbidas por el hongo a través de hifas que se introducen dentro del agua.  El hongo, en este íntimo equipo,  es el que provee un lugar donde vivir, ya que el hongo se aferra a la superficie donde habita por medio de estructuras parecidas a raíces y brinda estabilidad y soporte.

Los líquenes son organismos muy resistentes y tienen una vida muy larga, y eso que habitan lugares extremos. Son capaces de vivir en la Antártida y en las zonas glaciares de las montañas más altas del mundo, donde ninguna otra planta puede prosperar. También están en desiertos, en la costa e incluso bajo el agua.

En este caso, los líquenes son los principales pioneros a momento de colonizar rocas y paredes de cualquier naturaleza (sedimentaria, metafórmica), lo que ha generado deterioro en El Fuerte de Samaipata, debilitando y carcomiendo su histórica estructura.

Gran parte del programa de rescate y preservación de la roca, liderado por el CIAS, es justamente conocer la dinámica entre las especies de líquenes y la roca de Samaipata para poder establecer el mejor plan para su extracción y prevención de futuras colonizaciones.

*Responsable de difusión e investigación del Colegio de Biólogos de Santa Cruz.

 

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